1. Following surgery a patient develops oliguria. You believe the oliguria is due to hypovolemia, but you seek corroborative data before increasing intravenous fluids. Which of the following values supports the diagnosis of hypovolemia?

2. Five days after an uneventful cholecystectomy, an asymptomatic middle-aged woman is found to have a serum sodium level of 125 mEq/L. Which of the following is the most appropriate management strategy for this patient?

3. A 24 year old man is brought to the casuality after fall down from  height.his breathing is laboured & he is cyanotic.No breath sounds can be heard & right lung field is resonant.the initial management would be-

4. During surgical exploration for hydatid cyst of the liver,any of the following agents can be used as scolicidal agent except-

5. After a blunt injury to the chest, a patient presented with a large flail chest  & cyanosis.Investigations confirm that only significant trauma is that of multiple rib the appropiate statement for management-

6. A young women develops left sided pneumothorax following blunt injury to chest.the most appropiate site to insertion of chest tube would be-

7. Kallu, a 60 yr old male diagnosed with carcinoma of stomach.CT scan of abdomen showed a mass measuring 4×4 cm in antrum with involvement of celiac nodes & right gastric nodes.Management of choice is-

8. A 50-year-old patient presents with symptomatic nephrolithiasis. He reports that he underwent a jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity when he was 39. Which of the following is a complication of jejunoileal bypass:


9. A 65 yr old smoker presents with hoarseness of voice,hemoptysis & a hard painless lump in the left supraclavicular fossa.which of the following is the most appropriate diagnostic step-

10. A 76-year-old man is scheduled to undergo elective repair of an abdominal hernia that is easily reducible. During the repair, the
surgeon sees that the sac protrudes directly through the external inguinal ring without coursing through the inguinal canal. Which of
the following types of hernia does this patient most likely have?

11. A 48-year-old woman develops constipation postoperatively and self-medicates with milk of magnesia. She presents to clinic, at which time her serum electrolytes are checked, and she is noted to have an elevated serum magnesium level. Which of the following represents the earliest clinical indication of hypermagnesemia?

12. A patient with crohn's disease has been unresponsive to drug therapy & undergoes ileal resection.after the surgery he will have steatorrhea because of-

13. A 50 yr old male presented in casualty with hypotension & hematemesis.there is previous history suggestive of alcohol intake of 100 mL daily.The blood loss is around 2L.Most probable diagnosis-

14. Oxalate kidney stones are due to resection of which of the following area of small bowel -

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