Iron deficiency anemia: (Microcytic anemia):
(HIGH YIELD NOTES FOR |MBBS|NEETPG|NEXT|INICET|FMGE)
A condition in which iron loss exceeds intake.
May occur when dietary intake is insufficient for the patient’s needs (eg, when needs are ↑ by growth or pregnancy) or in the setting of chronic blood loss, usually 2° to menstruation or GI bleeding.
Toddlers, adolescent girls, and women of childbearing age are most commonly affected.
Don’t Forget: Iron deficiency anemia in an elderly patient may be due to colorectal cancer and must therefore be evaluated to rule out malignancy.
- fatigue, weakness, brittle nails, and pica.
- angular cheilitis
- koilonychia (“spoon nails”).
- Peripheral blood smear shows hypochromic and microcytic RBCs with a low reticulocyte count. & Doughnut cells with central pallor
- Low serum ferritin reflects low body stores of iron and confirms the diagnosis. However, ferritin is also an acute-phase reactant and may thus obscure evidence of iron deficiency.
- Red cell distribution width (RDW) elevation is a highly specific test for iron deficiency anemia.
- Treat with replacement iron for 4–6 months. Oral iron sulfate but It may lead to nausea, constipation, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Antacids may interfere with iron absorption.
- If necessary, IV iron dextran can be administered but is associated with a 10% risk of serious side effects, including anaphylaxis.
- Other parenteral preparations are available with less allergic risk, such as iron sucrose.
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One thought on “Iron deficiency anemia: (Microcytic anemia): High Yield Notes”
Iron dextran is virtually obsolete. Ferric carboxy maltose is the commonly used parenteral iron preparation though iron sucrose may be preferred owing to cost of FCM