1. Which of the following is a hallmark feature of acute inflammation?
B. Neutrophil infiltration
C. Collagen deposition
Answer: B. Neutrophil infiltration
Explanation: Acute inflammation is characterized by the rapid recruitment of neutrophils to the site of injury or infection. Neutrophils are the first responders of the immune system in acute inflammatory reactions.
2. What is the primary function of macrophages in chronic inflammation?
A. Phagocytosis of debris
B. Release of histamine
C. Production of antibodies
D. Activation of mast cells
Answer: A. Phagocytosis of debris
Explanation: Macrophages play a crucial role in chronic inflammation by phagocytosing cellular debris, pathogens, and apoptotic cells, contributing to tissue repair and remodeling.
3. Which of the following is characteristic of type II hypersensitivity reactions?
A. Immune complex deposition
B. Delayed-type hypersensitivity
C. Antibody-mediated cell destruction
D. Activation of T cells
Answer: C. Antibody-mediated cell destruction
Explanation: Type II hypersensitivity reactions involve the destruction of host cells by antibodies directed against cell surface or extracellular matrix antigens.
4. Which histological finding is consistent with acute tubular necrosis (ATN)?
A. Diffuse interstitial fibrosis
B. Granular casts in tubular lumens
C. Nodular glomerulosclerosis
D. Mesangial proliferation
Answer: B. Granular casts in tubular lumens
Explanation: In acute tubular necrosis, renal tubular epithelial cells slough off into the tubular lumens, forming granular casts, which are a hallmark histological finding.
5. What is the primary defect in cystic fibrosis?
A. Defective chloride channel
B. Abnormal surfactant production
C. Impaired alveolar macrophage function
D. Overproduction of mucus
Answer: A. Defective chloride channel
Explanation: Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to dysfunctional chloride channels primarily in epithelial cells, affecting various organs, including the lungs and pancreas.
6. Which of the following pathogens is associated with peptic ulcer disease?
A. Streptococcus pyogenes
B. Helicobacter pylori
C. Escherichia coli
D. Candida albicans
Answer: B. Helicobacter pylori
Explanation: Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa and is strongly associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease.
7. Which of the following is a characteristic feature of bronchial asthma?
A. Reversible airflow obstruction
B. Increased lung compliance
C. Elevated FEV1/FVC ratio
D. Decreased airway responsiveness
Answer: A. Reversible airflow obstruction
Explanation: Bronchial asthma is characterized by reversible airflow obstruction due to bronchospasm, inflammation, and mucous plugging of the airways.
8. Which of the following is a risk factor for the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus?
A. Barrett’s esophagus
B. Chronic pancreatitis
C. Helicobacter pylori infection
D. Alcohol consumption
Answer: A. Barrett’s esophagus
Explanation: Barrett’s esophagus, a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is a premalignant condition associated with an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
9. Which type of thyroid carcinoma is associated with a favorable prognosis?
A. Anaplastic carcinoma
B. Papillary carcinoma
C. Medullary carcinoma
D. Follicular carcinoma
Answer: B. Papillary carcinoma
Explanation: Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid has a favorable prognosis compared to other types of thyroid carcinoma, with a high overall survival rate.
10. Which of the following is a characteristic feature of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis?
A. Thyroid hormone overproduction
B. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
C. Hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells
D. Presence of multinodular goiter
Answer: B. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Explanation: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism and elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).